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400+ Validation Studies

Evidence-based Simulation Training

Find here a selection of validation studies, the culmination of extensive research and rigorous validation processes providing evidence of the validity and reliability of our simulation technology, which helped pave the way for revolutionizing surgical education and training. Based on some of the studies we have established proficiency-based curricula which are integrated into our simulators.



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Effectiveness of the URO Mentor Virtual Reality Simulator in the Skill Acquisition of Flexible Cystoscopy Zhang Y., Chinese Medical Journal (Engl). 2013

Background: Virtual reality (VR) has been recognized as a useful modality in the training of surgical skills. With respect to basic endoscopic skill training of urology, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of the UroMentor(TM) virtual reality simulator (VRS) in the skill acquisition of flexible cystoscopy.

Methods: Urologists familiar with rigid cystoscopy procedures were selected to take part in a virtual training course of flexible cystoscopy. Changes in total operating time, frequency of injury, number of digital markers inside the bladder, and the global rating scale (GRS) scores were assessed following eight repeated training sessions on the UroMentor(TM).

Results: Eighteen urologists voluntarily took part in the study. Total operating time was significantly lower after eight sessions of training by comparison ((111 ± 10) seconds and (511 ± 67) seconds, respectively; P < 0.001). Additionally, the frequency of injury decreased with training from (12 ± 2) times to (5 ± 1) times (P < 0.001), while the number of digital markers observed increased from 9 ± 0 to 10 ± 1 (P = 0.005). Finally, training with the UroMentor(TM) resulted in a GRS increase from (1.3 ± 0.2) points to (3.9 ± 0.2) points (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The VRS UroMentor(TM) can improve urologists’ ability to perform flexible cystoscopy and could be used as an effective training tool for trainees.


Assessment of Urology Postgraduate Trainees’ Competencies in Flexible Ureteroscopic Stone Extraction Aloosh M. et al., Canadian Urological Associaiton Journal, 2018

Objectives: This study aims to assess the impact of a virtual reality trainer in improving percutaneous renal access skills of urological trainees.

Methods: A total of 36 urology trainees participated in this prospective study. Initially, they were taken through the exercise of gaining access to the lower pole calyceal system and introducing a guidewire down the ureter. Trainees’ performance was then assessed by virtual reality-derived parameters of the simulator at baseline and after 2 h of training.

Results: Participants who underwent training with the simulator demonstrated significant improvement in several parameters compared to their baseline performance. There was a statistically significant correlation between total time to perform the procedure and time of radiation exposure, radiation dose and correct calyx puncture (p < 0.01). Trainees needed a mean of 15.8 min from skin puncture to correct guidewire placement into the pelvicalyceal system before and 6.49 min following training.

Conclusions: We found percutaneous renal access skills of trainees improve significantly on a number of parameters as a result of training on the PERC Mentor TM VR simulator. Such simulated training has the potential to decrease the risks and complications associated with the early stages of the learning curve when training for percutaneous renal access in patients.


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